The types of Coffee Beans used in Go Africa®Coffee (Q&A)

You can buy Go Africa Coffee at:  www.amazon.com/shops/GoAfricaStore

 

The types of Coffee Beans used in Go Africa®Coffee

We have received so many inquiries regarding which beans are used in Go Africa Coffee. Since we source are beans from the following countries: (Ethiopia, Kenya, Côte d’Ivoire, Tanzania, Cameroon, and Democratic Republic of the Congo) the short answer is it depends.

images-4We have asked our resident Coffeelogist and Chief Roaster, Losseni Kone, to help provide an answer.

Coffee aficionados of all levels have without a doubt heard the words “Robusta” or “Arabica” However, Coffee is much more complex than just type of Coffee.

Below is a list of Countries and Types of beans sourced from the country for Go Africa Coffee. Keep in mind a Country can source more than one type of bean:

  • images-2Ethiopia: (Arabica, Sadamo (Yirgachefe and Guji))
  • Kenya: (Bourbon, French Mission)
  • Côte d’Ivoire (Arabica, Gros Idente, Excelsea, Kouilou and Petit Indenize)
  • Tanzania: (Robusta)
  • Cameroon: (Arabica)
  • Democratic Republic of the Congo: (Robusta)

 

 

Below is a detail description of each type and subclass of Coffee Beans grown in the various regions of Africa.

 coffee-615

Not all of Africa’s coffee production is limited to Robusta, however. Here’s an overview of the different coffee varieties that are grown frequently across the African continent (keep in mind that while some of these coffees are considered single origin in nature, most like Arabica and Robusta are not):

  • Sadamo:A type of Arabica (which you can find elsewhere in this list) grown as a single origin coffee source in Sadamo, Ethiopia, this variety of coffee is a small bean that produces a rich, spicy and almost chocolatey flavor. Individual types of Ethiopian Sadamo include Yirgachefe and Guji, both known to be of high quality. Another type of Ethiopian coffee is Harar, which is another Arabica but not grown in Sadamo. More on these types of coffees later.
  • Liberica:Coffea Liberica is a species separate from Arabica as well. It typically grows in the western areas of Africa – most notably Liberia. Liberica’s taste is closer to Robusta than that of Arabica, and the beans grow on trees that can grow as high as 10 to 15 meters tall.
    Gros Idente: Similar to Liberica, Gros Idente coffee is grown in large trees in the western areas of Africa, such as the Ivory Coast.
  • Arabica:Yes, for all of our talk about Robusta growing in Africa, it can be easy to forget that Arabica coffee is also grown in Africa. Typically, the environments suited for growing Arabica in Africa are in mountainous areas – places like the mainland of the Ivory Coast and Cameroon are typical spots where Arabica coffee is grown. only-on-amazon-gacoffee
  • Excelsea:Like Liberica coffee, these trees grow high. In fact, they are also grown in the Ivory Coast which contributes to much of their similarities to Liberica and Gros Idente coffees.
  • Robusta:Much of the African environment is suitable for Robusta growing, typically the lower-lying areas in the equatorial regions of Africa. Robusta is grown just about everywhere from Madagascar to Gabon – even if Vietnam is a leading producer of Robusta coffee, its African roots are hard to shake off.
  • Kouilou and Petit Indenize:Grown inland along the Ivory Coast, these are actually smaller coffee trees.
  • Bourbon:This type of coffee was already mentioned before, but its influence in African coffee is difficult to understate. Bourbon was planted in Reunion – an island off the eastern coast of Madagascar – in the 18th century. The type of coffee then mutated, producing Bourbon coffee, which was then moved around the world and cultivated in different areas.
  • French Mission:This refers to a type of Bourbon coffee that was planted by French missionaries in areas of East Africa around the turn of the 20th century. A Kenyan type of this coffee known as K7 is also grown in Africa.
  • Mayaguez:Another subset of Bourbon coffee, this coffee is grown in Rwanda. Typically, the Bourbon coffees planted in Africa are spread throughout the eastern portions of the continent and Madagascar.

Considering the degree of geographical, environmental, and climate differences on a large continent like Africa, it’s not surprising that so many different varieties of coffee are produced there to some degree – including the world-popular Arabica.images-4

Coffee aficionados of all levels have without a doubt heard the words “Robusta” or “Arabica”. If you aren’t familiar with either, these two terms describe the two different species of beans grown commercially. They are the same in that when harvested, roasted and eventually brewed to become that magical thing we call coffee. However, that’s where the similarities end. Robusta and Arabica differ when it comes to taste, growing environments and quality:

Taste

Robusta has a neutral to harsh taste range and is often likened to having an “oatmeal-like” taste. When unroasted, the smell of Robusta beans is described as raw-peanutty.

Arabicas, on the other hand, have a very wide taste range (depending on its varietal). The range differs from sweet-soft to sharp-tangy. When unroasted, Arabica beans smell like blueberries. Their roasted smell is described as perfumey with notes of fruit and sugar tones.

Growing environments

Robusta coffee beans come from a resilient plant that is able to be grown in low altitudes of 200-800 meters. Robusta beans aren’t very susceptible to damage done by pests. Additionally, they produce more finished product per acre and require fairly low production costs.images-3

Contrariwise, Arabica coffee beans are fragile and must grow in cool, subtropical climates.  Arabica beans also need a lot of moisture, rich soil, shade and sun. Because of their fragility, Arabica beans are vulnerable to attack from various pests and can be damaged by cold temperatures or poor handling. This type of bean also needs to be grown at a higher elevation (600-2000 meters).

Which bean is better? 

No contest!  If you had to choose between an Arabica bean and a Robusta bean, it’s important to always choose Arabica.images-1

Robusta fosters use mono-cropping, the practice of growing the same plant every year in one place. It yields more space since it involves clear-cutting the forest for the crop. Because Robusta is more a resilient plant than the delicate Arabica, it can be grown in more places. Large coffee companies buy huge amounts of rainforest, clear-cut the land and plant Robusta beans. Robusta is often mixed with Arabica,  allowing the coffee companies to save a pretty penny and serve you a crappy cup. Not to mention, mono-cropping, when done excessively, also erodes soil and demolishes nutrients making the soil nearly unusable.

We are proud to announce the support of The National Urban League for the 2nd African Union Business Expo to be held on 11/15/2016 at MIST Harlem from 10am -7pm.

We are proud to announce the support of The National Urban League  for the 2nd African Union Business Expo to be held on 11/15/2016 at MIST Harlem from 10am -7pm.  Register to win up to 1,000.00! at

at http://africanunionexpo.org/events/african-union-expo-2016-nyc-harlem-on-11152016-from-10am-7pm/

or email info@africanunionexpo.com or phone 646-502-9778 Ext. 8002 to the attend or to request further  information

follow: #AfricanUnionExpo2016

This year will feature 2 new events:

  • Go Africa Startup Contest (for entrepreneurs, startups and small companies)
    • General category
      • 10 min presentation of your business with 5 min Q&A from the Audience and Judges:
      • 1,000 cash (First Prize)
      • 250 Gift Card (Second Prize)
      • 150 Gift Card (Third Prize)
    • Innovation & idea Category
    • Contestant has an innovation or idea that is in the incubation, development stage
      • 10 min presentation of your business with 5 min Q&A from the Audience and Judges:
      • 150 Gift Card (First Prize)
      • 100 Gift Card (Second Prize)
      • 75 Gift Card (Third Prize)

Contestant, Individual or Business can only compete and/or win in one of the categories but not both.

  • Business Review (business plan review and financing, planning assessment) Featuring the following:
    • Individual planning and assessment with Go Africa Capital LLC and a financial institution for your business or startup.
    • Individualized scoring and funding proposal created for your business
  • If the funding proposal is accepted by all parties involved, funding will be provided within 60 – 120 days.
  • See (business Review Section for more details on the criteria, and other parameters

__

About the National Urban League: nul-images-4

Our Mission
The mission of the Urban League movement is to enable African Americans to secure economic self-reliance, parity, power and civil rights.

Our History
The National Urban League, which has played so pivotal a role in the 20th-Century Freedom Movement, grew out of that spontaneous grassroots movement for freedom and opportunity that came to be called the Black Migrations. When the U.S. Supreme Court declared its approval of segregation in the 1896 Plessy v. Ferguson decision, the brutal system of economic, social and political oppression the White South quickly adopted rapidly transformed what had been a trickle of African Americans northward into a flood. nulu-logo nul_footer_logo

Those newcomers to the North soon discovered they had not escaped racial discrimination. Excluded from all but menial jobs in the larger society, victimized by poor housing and education, and inexperienced in the ways of urban living, many lived in terrible social and economic conditions.

Still, in the degree of difference between South and North lay opportunity, and that African Americans clearly understood. But to capitalize on that opportunity, to successfully adapt to urban life and to reduce the pervasive discrimination they faced, they would need help. That was the reason the Committee on Urban Conditions Among Negroes was established on September 29, 1910 in New York City. Central to the organization’s founding were two remarkable people: Mrs. Ruth Standish Baldwin and Dr. George Edmund Haynes, who would become the Committee’s first executive secretary.

Mrs. Baldwin, the widow of a railroad magnate and a member of one of America’s oldest families, had a remarkable social conscience and was a stalwart champion of the poor and disadvantaged. Dr. Haynes, a graduate of Fisk University, Yale University, and Columbia University (he was the first African American to receive a doctorate from that institution), felt a compelling need to use his training as a social worker to serve his people.
A year later, the Committee merged with the Committee for the Improvement of Industrial Conditions Among Negroes in New York (founded in New York in 1906), and the National League for the Protection of Colored Women (founded in 1905) to form the National League on Urban Conditions Among Negroes. In 1920, the name was later shortened to the National Urban League.

The interracial character of the League’s board was set from its first days. Professor Edwin R. A. Seligman of Columbia University, one of the leaders in progressive social service activities in New York City, served as chairman from 1911 to 1913. Mrs. Baldwin took the post until 1915.

The fledgling organization counseled black migrants from the South, helped train black social workers, and worked in various other ways to bring educational and employment opportunities to blacks. Its research into the problems blacks faced in employment opportunities, recreation, housing, health and sanitation, and education spurred the League’s quick growth. By the end of World War I the organization had 81 staff members working in 30 cities.

In 1918, Dr. Haynes was succeeded by Eugene Kinckle Jones who would direct the agency until his retirement in 1941. Under his direction, the League significantly expanded its multifaceted campaign to crack the barriers to black employment, spurred first by the boom years of the 1920s, and then, by the desperate years of the Great Depression. Efforts at reasoned persuasion were buttressed by boycotts against firms that refused to employ blacks, pressures on schools to expand vocational opportunities for young people, constant prodding of Washington officials to include blacks in New Deal recovery programs and a drive to get blacks into previously segregated labor unions.

As World War II loomed, Lester Granger, a seasoned League veteran and crusading newspaper columnist, was appointed Eugene Kinckle Jones successor.

Outspoken in his commitment to advancing opportunity for blacks, Granger pushed tirelessly to integrate the racist trade unions and led the League’s effort to support A. Philip Randolph’s March on Washington Movement to fight discrimination in defense work and in the armed services. Under Granger, the League, through its own Industrial Relations Laboratory, had notable success in cracking the color bar in numerous defense plants. The nation’s demand for civilian labor during the war also helped the organization press ahead with greater urgency its programs to train black youths for meaningful blue-collar employment. After the war those efforts expanded to persuading Fortune 500 companies to hold career conferences on the campuses of Negro colleges and place blacks in upper-echelon jobs.

Of equal importance to the League’s own future sources of support, Granger avidly supported the organization of its volunteer auxiliary, the National Urban League Guild, which, under the leadership of Mollie Moon, became an important national force in its own right.

The explosion of the civil rights movement provoked a change for the League, one personified by its new leader, Whitney M. Young, Jr., who became executive director in 1961. A social worker like his predecessors, he substantially expanded the League’s fund-raising ability and, most critically, made the League a full partner in the civil rights movement. Although the League’s tax-exempt status barred it from protest activities, it hosted at its New York headquarters the planning meetings of A. Philip Randolph, Martin Luther King, Jr., and other civil rights leaders for the 1963 March on Washington. Young was also a forceful advocate for greater government and private-sector efforts to eradicate poverty. His call for a domestic Marshall Plan, a ten-point program designed to close  the huge social and economic gap between black and white Americans, significantly influenced the discussion of the Johnson Administration’s War on Poverty legislation.

Young’s tragic death in 1971 in a drowning incident off the coast of Lagos, Nigeria brought another change in leadership. Vernon E. Jordan, Jr., formerly Executive Director of the United Negro College Fund, took over as the League’s fifth Executive Director in 1972 (the title of the office was changed to President in 1977). For the next decade, until his resignation in December 1981, Jordan skillfully guided the League to new heights of achievement. He oversaw a major expansion of its social service efforts, as the League became a significant conduit for the federal government to establish programs and deliver services to aid urban communities, and brokered fresh initiatives in such League programs as housing, health, education and minority business development. Jordan also instituted a citizenship education program that helped increase the black vote and brought new programs to such areas as energy, the environment, and non-traditional jobs for women of color-and he developed The State of Black America report.

In 1982, John E. Jacob, a former chief executive officer of the Washington, D.C. and San Diego affiliates who had served as Executive Vice President, took the reins of leadership, solidifying the League’s internal structure and expanding its outreach even further.

Jacob established the Permanent Development Fund in order to increase the organization’s financial stamina. In honor of Whitney Young, he established several programs to aid the development of those who work for and with the League: The Whitney M. Young, Jr. Training Center, to provide training and leadership development opportunities for both staff and volunteers; the Whitney M. Young, Jr. Race Relations Program, which recognizes affiliates doing exemplary work in race relations; and the Whitney M. Young, Jr. Commemoration Ceremony, which honors and pays tribute to long term staff and volunteers who have made extraordinary contributions to the Urban League Movement.

Jacob established the League’s NULITES youth development program and spurred the League to put new emphasis on programs to reduce teenage pregnancy, help single female heads of households, combat crime in black communities, and increase voter registration.

Hugh B. Price, appointed to the League’s top office in July 1994, took over the reins at a critical moment for the League, for black America, and for the nation as a whole. In the early 90’s, the fierce market-driven dynamic of “globalization,” was sweeping the world, fundamentally altering the economic relations among and within countries and reshaping the link between the nation’s citizenry and its economy, fostering enormous uncertainty among individuals and tensions among ethnic and cultural groups.

This economic change and the efforts of some to rollback the gains African Americans fashioned since the 1960s made the League’s efforts all the more necessary. Price, a lawyer with extensive experience in community development and public policy issues, intensified the organization’s work in three broad areas: in education and youth development, individual and community-wide economic empowerment, affirmative action and the promotion of inclusion as a critical foundation for securing America’s future as a multi-ethnic democracy.

Among Price’s most notable achievements was establishing the League’s Institute of Opportunity and Equality in Washington, DC, which conducted research and public policy analysis of urban issues and the Campaign for African American Achievement, a community mobilization and advocacy initiative created to raise awareness and promote the importance of achievement through the formation of the National Achievers Society, “Doing the Right Thing” recognition in local communities and the National Urban League’s Scholarship Program.

On May 15, 2003 the Board of Trustees of the National Urban League voted overwhelmingly to appoint former New Orleans Mayor Marc H. Morial as the League’s eighth President and Chief Executive Officer. As New Orleans Chief Executive, he was one of the most popular and effective mayors in the city’s history, leaving office with 70% approval rating. After being elected as one of the youngest mayors in the city’s history, crime plummeted by 60% a corrupt Police Department was reformed, new programs for youth were started and stagnant economy was reignited.

Since his appointment to the National Urban League, Morial has worked to reenergize the movement’s diverse constituencies by building on the strengths of the NUL’s 95 year old legacy and increasing the organization’s profile both locally and nationally.

In his first year, Morial worked to streamline the organization’s headquarters, secured over $10 million dollars in new funding to support affiliate programs, created the first Legislative Policy Conference “NUL on the Hill’, revamped the State of Black America report, created profitability for the annual conference, and secured a $127.5 million equity fund for  minority businesses through the new markets tax credit program. He introduced and developed a stronger strategic direction of the organization with a “five point empowerment agenda’ that focuses on closing the equality gaps which exist for African Americans and other emerging ethnic communities in education, economic empowerment, health and quality of life, civic engagement, and civil rights and racial justice.

We are proud to announce the support of Senator Adriano Espaillat for the 2nd African Union Business Expo to be held on 11/15/2016 at MIST Harlem from 10am -7pm.

We are proud to announce the support of Senator Adriano Espaillat for the 2nd African Union Business Expo to be held on 11/15/2016 at MIST Harlem from 10am -7pm.  Register to win up to 1,000.00! at

at http://africanunionexpo.org/events/african-union-expo-2016-nyc-harlem-on-11152016-from-10am-7pm/

or email info@africanunionexpo.com or phone 646-502-9778 Ext. 8002 to the attend or to request further  information

follow: #AfricanUnionExpo2016

This year will feature 2 new events:

  • Go Africa Startup Contest (for entrepreneurs, startups and small companies)
    • General category
      • 10 min presentation of your business with 5 min Q&A from the Audience and Judges:
      • 1,000 cash (First Prize)
      • 250 Gift Card (Second Prize)
      • 150 Gift Card (Third Prize)
    • Innovation & idea Category
    • Contestant has an innovation or idea that is in the incubation, development stage
      • 10 min presentation of your business with 5 min Q&A from the Audience and Judges:
      • 150 Gift Card (First Prize)
      • 100 Gift Card (Second Prize)
      • 75 Gift Card (Third Prize)

Contestant, Individual or Business can only compete and/or win in one of the categories but not both.

  • Business Review (business plan review and financing, planning assessment) Featuring the following:
    • Individual planning and assessment with Go Africa Capital LLC and a financial institution for your business or startup.
    • Individualized scoring and funding proposal created for your business
  • If the funding proposal is accepted by all parties involved, funding will be provided within 60 – 120 days.
  • See (business Review Section for more details on the criteria, and other parameters.

___

New York State Senator Adriano Espaillat is the Democratic candidate for New York’s 13th Congressional District in the 2016 general election. He is currently the Ranking Member of the Senate Housing, Construction, and Community Development Committee, and Chair of the Senate Puerto Rican/Latino Caucus; he is also a member of the Environmental Conservation, Economic Development, Codes, Insurance, and Judiciary committees. Prior to becoming a state senator, he served in the New York State Assembly, and was the first Dominican-American elected to a state legislature when he first won his seat in 1996. In 2002, Espaillat was elected chair of the New York State Black, Puerto Rican, Hispanic and Asian Legislative Caucus, and helped to reunite the group after years of division. adriano-espaillat-headshot1-214x300

Throughout his tenure as a public servant, Espaillat has been a vocal advocate for protecting tenants, improving schools, and making serious, smart investments in economic development, job creation, and environmental protection. As state senator, he currently represents the neighborhoods of Marble Hill, Inwood, Washington Heights, Hamilton Heights, West Harlem, the Upper West Side, Hell’s Kitchen, Clinton, and Chelsea.

Senator Espaillat has sponsored and helped to pass landmark laws encouraging the construction and preservation of affordable housing, developing free legal services for tenants, giving 35,000 low-income day care workers access to healthcare and the ability to join the UFT, providing workers’ compensation for 40,000 livery cab drivers, and improving hospital translation services. Espaillat has also worked to protect landmarks, taking legal action to protect the Palisades when the LG Tower threatened to permanently mar its natural beauty. After the July 1999 blackout in Upper Manhattan caused financial damage to restaurants, bodegas, and other small businesses, Espaillat helped to secure an agreement from Con Edison to invest an additional $100 million in Upper Manhattan’s electrical infrastructure at no cost to ratepayers—and when customers were billed for expenses related to an Indian Point Energy Center shutdown, Espaillat fought back and got their money refunded.

As congressman, Senator Espaillat will bring new energy to Washington and will be a steadfast champion for working- and middle-class New Yorkers. He will fight for a fair living wage, immediate and effective investments in affordable housing, meaningful criminal justice reform, infrastructure improvements, expanded youth programs, and better educational opportunities. Prior to entering public service, Adriano served as the Manhattan Court Services Coordinator for the NYC Criminal Justice Agency, a non-profit organization that provides indigent legal services and works to reduce unnecessary pretrial detention and post-sentence incarceration costs. He later worked as Director of the Washington Heights Victims Services Community Office, an organization offering counseling and other services to families of victims of homicides and other crimes, and as the Director of Project Right Start, a national initiative funded by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation to combat substance abuse by educating the parents of pre-school children.

Humans Spread From Africa in One Wave, DNA Shows (NYT)

By Carl Zimmer (NYT)

Did humans flood out of Africa in a single diaspora, or did we trickle from the continent in waves spread out over tens of thousands of years? The question, one of the biggest in human evolution, has plagued scientists for decades.

 

Now they may have found an answer.

In a series of unprecedented genetic analyses published on Wednesday in the journal Nature, three separate teams of researchers conclude that all non­Africans today trace their ancestry to a single population emerging from Africa between 50,000 and 80,000 years ago.

 

“I think all three studies are basically saying the same thing,” said Joshua M. Akey of the University of Washington, who wrote a commentary accompanying the new work. “We know there were multiple dispersals out of Africa, but we can trace our ancestry back to a single one.”

 

The three teams sequenced the genomes of 787 people, obtaining highly detailed scans of each. The genomes were drawn from people in hundreds of indigenous populations around the world — Basques, African pygmies, Mayans, Bedouins, Sherpas and Cree Indians, to name just a few.

 

The DNA of older indigenous populations may be essential to understanding human history, many geneticists believe. Yet until now scientists have sequenced few whole genomes from people outside population centers like Europe and China. The new findings already are altering scientific understanding of what human DNA looks like, experts said, adding a rich diversity of variation to our map of the genome.

 

Each team of researchers used sets of genomes to tackle different questions about our origins, such as how people spread across Africa and how others populated Australia. But all aimed to settle the question of human expansion from Africa.

 

In the 1980s, a group of paleoanthropologists and geneticists began championing a hypothesis that modern humans emerged only once from Africa, roughly 50,000 years ago. Skeletons and tools discovered at archaeological sites clearly indicated the existence of modern humans in Europe, Asia and Australia.

 

Early studies of bits of DNA also supported this scenario. All non­Africans are closely related to one another, the studies found, and they all branch from a genetic tree rooted in Africa.

Yet there are also clues that at least some modern humans lived outside of Africa well before 50,000 years ago, perhaps part of an earlier wave of migration.

In Israel, for example, researchers found a few distinctively modern human skeletons that are between 120,000 and 90,000 years old. In Saudi Arabia and India, they discovered sophisticated tools dating back as far as 100,000 years.

Last October, Chinese scientists reported finding teeth belonging to Homo sapiens that are at least 80,000 years old and perhaps as old as 120,000 years.

 

Some scientists have argued from these finds that there was a human expansion from Africa earlier than 50,000 years ago. In 2011 Eske Willerslev, a renowned geneticist at the University of Copenhagen, and his colleagues reported evidence that some living people descended from this early wave.

Dr. Willerslev and his colleagues reconstructed the genome of an Aboriginal Australian from a century­old lock of hair kept in a museum — the first reconstruction of its kind. The DNA held a number of peculiar variants not found in Europeans or Asians.

He concluded that the ancestors of Aboriginals split off from other non­Africans and moved eastward, eventually arriving in East Asia 62,000 to 75,000 years ago. Tens of thousands of years later, a separate population of Africans spread into Europe and Asia.

It was a big conclusion to draw from a single fragile genome, so Dr. Willerslev decided to contact living Aboriginals to see if they’d participate in a new genetic study. He joined David W. Lambert, a geneticist at Griffith University in Australia, who was already meeting with Aboriginal communities about beginning such a study.

Their new paper also includes DNA from people in Papua New Guinea, thanks to a collaboration with scientists at the University of Oxford. All told, the scientists were able to sequence 83 genomes from Aboriginal Australians and 25 from people in Papua New Guinea, all with far greater accuracy than in Dr. Willerslev’s 2011 study.

Meanwhile, Mait Metspalu of the Estonian Biocentre was leading a team of 98 scientists on another genome­gathering project.

They picked out 148 populations to sample, mostly in Europe and Asia, with a few genomes from Africa and Australia. They, too, sequenced 483 genomes at high resolution.

David Reich, a geneticist at Harvard Medical School, and his colleagues assembled a third database of genomes from all five continents. The Simons Genome Diversity Project, sponsored by the Simons Foundation and the National Science Foundation, contains 300 high­quality genomes from 142 populations.

Dr. Reich and his colleagues probed their data for the oldest evidence of human groups genetically separating from one another.

They found that the ancestors of the KhoiSan, hunter­gatherers living today in southern Africa, began to split off from other living humans about 200,000 years ago and were fully isolated by 100,000 years ago.

Earlier studies had estimated that the split between living groups of humans occurred much more recently. The new findings indicate that our ancestors already had evolved behaviors seen in living humans, such as language, 200,000 years ago.

Dr. Reich and his colleagues then investigated whether people in Australia and Papua New Guinea descended from an early wave of humans from Africa. They could find no evidence supporting that idea in the genomes.

The people of Australia and Papua New Guinea descended from the same expansion of Africans that produced Europeans and Asians, Dr. Reich’s team decided

Working with a separate set of genomes, Dr. Willerslev and his colleagues came to much the same conclusion. “The vast majority of their ancestry — if not all of it — is coming from the same out­of­Africa wave as Europeans and Asians,” said Dr. Willerslev.

Dr. Metspalu and his colleagues ended up with a somewhat different result when they looked at the Estonian Biocentre data.

They compared chunks of DNA from different genomes to see how long ago people inherited them from a common ancestor.

Almost all the DNA from non­Africans today could be traced back to one population that lived about 75,000 years ago — presumably a group of Africans who eventually left the continent and settled the rest of the world. That squares with the conclusions of the other two studies.

 

But in Papua New Guinea, Dr. Metspalu and his colleagues found, the story was a little different. They could trace 98 percent of each person’s DNA to that 75,000­year­old group. But the other 2 percent was much older.

Some people in Papua New Guinea — but no one else in the analyses — may carry a trace of DNA from a much older wave of Africans who left the continent as long as 140,000 years ago, and then vanished.

 

The second wave — the one from which the rest of the world descends — departed over 60,000 years later, the researchers suggest. The ancestors of the people of Papua New Guinea interbred with those first pioneers on their way east, which is why their descendants carry remarkable DNA.

 

Why leave Africa at all? Scientists have found some clues as to that mystery, too.

 

In a fourth paper in Nature, researchers described a computer model of Earth’s recent climatic and ecological history. It shows that changing rainfall patterns periodically opened up corridors from Africa into Eurasia that humans may have followed in search of food.

 

Huw Groucutt, an archaeologist at the University of Oxford, criticized the new studies as too simplistic. It’s incorrect, he said, to try to split non­Africans into just two distinct groups — one 120,000 years ago, and one closer to 50,000 years ago.

 

He suspects that there were several early waves from Africa, whose descendants combined into a complex gene pool. “It’s probably much more about populations expanding and contracting, fusing and separating,” said Dr. Groucutt.

Luca Pagani, a co­author of Dr. Metspalu at the University of Cambridge and the Estonian Biocentre, said that their findings suggest a population of early human pioneers were able to survive for tens of thousands of years.

 

But when the last wave came out of Africa, descendants of the first wave disappeared. Why?

 

“They may have not been technologically advanced, living in small groups,” Dr. Pagani said of the people of the early wave. “Maybe it was easy for a major later wave that was more successful to wipe them out.”

 

Video for Fundraiser to be held on 9/19/2016 Adriano Espaillat for Congress for to the New York’s 13th Congressional District.

Video for Fundraiser to be held on 9/19/2016 Adriano Espaillat for Congress for to the New York’s 13th Congressional District.

Hosted by: Dr. Dennie Beach, Dr. Samuel Jones, Ibrahima Cisse with sponsorship by The African Union Expo LLC, Go Africa Capital Inc., Go Africa Health LLC, & Go Africa News LLC.

When: September 19, 2016 (Monday) from 5:30 PM – 9:00pm PM

Where: Home of Dr. Dennie Beach: 1760 2nd Ave (between 91nd and 92nd Streets) Apt 22C New York, NY 10128

Please join us for a very special event to raise funds for Adriano Espaillat for Congress for to the New York’s 13th  Congressional District. Adriano Espaillat Headshot

Hosted by: Dr. Dennie Beach, Dr. Samuel Jones, Ibrahima Cisse with sponsorship by The African Union Expo LLC, Go Africa Capital Inc., Go Africa Health LLC, & Go Africa News LLC.

When: September 19, 2016 (Monday) from 5:30 PM – 9:00pm PM

Where: Home of Dr. Dennie Beach: 1760 2nd Ave (between 91nd and 92nd Streets) Apt 22C New York, NY 10128

  • Chair: $2600
  • Vice-Chair: $1000
  • Patron: $500
  • Sponsor: $250
  • Guest: $100

For more information, or to RSVP, info@AfricanUnionExpo.org or espaillatforcongress2014@gmail.com or 646-502-9778 ext. 8008

Cocktails, appetizers and dish specialties will be served at this incomparable event. this promises to be a special evening for everyone.

This event is on 9/19/2016 from 5:30pm – 9:00pm at 1760 2nd ave apt 22C NY, NY 10128

Located between 91st & 92nd streets

NOTE: Contributions received through this event shall be used to retire debt from the 2014 primary election.

Please visit the link below to make a donation you use the selections below

https://act.myngp.com/Forms/5347181232083959808

and/or RSVP  your attendance and contribution below.

If you are only RSVPing your attendance and will make a contribution at the event, please select VIP Attendee below in your selection.

for more information email: info@africanunionexpo.com or Media@africanunionExpo.com

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The Ultimate Iced Coffee Recipe

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Go Africa Coffee is sold exclusively on Amazon nationwide. You can reach us at coffee_cust@goafricastore.com or 646-502-9778 ext 8004 or at wwww.GoAfricaStore.com

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“Cold-brewed coffee poured over coffee ice cubes makes the best iced coffee. It takes a bit of planning, but its full, rich flavor makes the wait worthwhile. The ideal coffee for this cold drink is a blend of mid-roasted beans with moderate acid. Using a dark roast and beans high in acid produces a sharper, more bitter result.”

Ingredients

Ultimate Iced Coffee

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Buy 1 get 1 free promotion for Go Africa Coffee. only on Amazon.com use code GAC8FREE at Checkout. buy 1, 2 Ibs or 1 Ibs bag of Coffee at get 1, 80z bag of coffee free until 8/22/2016 or while supplies last. need the 8oz bag in your cart upon checkout to receive the discount. Limit one per person visit www.amazon.com/shops/GoAfricaStore  or www.GoAfricaStore.com

Go Africa Coffee is sold exclusively on Amazon nationwide. You can reach is at coffee_cust@goafricastore.com or 646-502-9778 ext 8004 or at wwww.GoAfricaStore.com

How to make Coffee video https://youtu.be/LqhISWG2Uqg

 

Go Africa Coffee is a unique blend of ancestral roasting and processing techniques handed down by Africans for over 2,000 years in order to yield the optimal balance of flavor, taste, and aroma while also appreciating the value of wisdom of our culture and traditions to produce a product that is timeless and eternal.

We are one (English), Simunye (Zulu), Sisi ni moja (Swahili) , Anyị bụ otu (Igbo),  نحن واحد (Arabic), Ambehé mogo kéléyé (Mandingo), Nous sommes un (French).

 

What kind of coffee is produced in Africa?

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What kind of coffee is produced in Africa?
Most African countries produce Robusta coffee, with a few having a mix of both Robusta and Arabica varieties. Countries producing Arabica coffee, especially the Colombian Mild will have a windfall in export earnings, which may lead to increased investments to boost output.
african coffee growing regions

Africa is home to many of the finest African coffee beans in the world, fromEthiopia and Kenya in the East to Rwanda where top quality Arabica beans are cultivated to West African countries including Senegal and Cameroon where robusta coffee beans are mostly grown.

We’ll look briefly at some of the regions in this article: Ethiopia, Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania and Malawi. Though to be fair, coffee beans from Africaare widely cultivated throughout the continent, and even grows wild in many areas.

Ethiopia: Harrar, Ghimbi and Yirgacheffe

Ethiopia has three main regions that produce African coffee beans: Harrar, Ghimbi and Sidamo, or Yirgacheffe. Harrar beans come from small farms and are dry-processed. They are labeled “longberry” for large and “shortberry” for small or Mocha (which is the size of a peaberry).

The Ethiopian coffee has a strong dry edge, wine-like to fruity acidity, a rich aroma and heavy in body. In the best crops, you can smell blueberries or blackberries. Ethiopian is often used in espresso blends in order the capture the aromatics in the crema (the thin layer of foam atop an espresso).

Ghimi and Yirgacheffe produce washed coffees. The Ghimbi beans grown in western parts are more balanced, heavier and longer lasting body than the Harrars. The Yirgacheffe coffee bean is the most flavored of all the Ethiopian beans, grown in the southern part of the country. Mild, fruity and aromatic, you may see it labeled Sidamo, which refers to the district where it is grown and harvested.

Uganda: Shade grown

Uganda produces mostly Robusta beans that are typically used in instant coffees but the Arabica beans it does produce are similar to Kenyan coffee. The best Ugandan coffee comes from the western slopes of Mt. Elgon called Bugishu.

Robusta has been in Uganda for centuries and wild varieties of it still grow in Uganda’s rain forests. Both Robusta and Arabica trees are grown in the shade of banana trees and harvested about twice a year. 300,000 farmers grow coffee, which makes up 95% of the country’s exports.

Ugandan farmers grow mostly Robusta since it is easier for farmers with little money for equipment and none to hire help. The more well-off farmers can afford to farm Arabica, which is more work and more expensive but also pays off better. Ugandan Arabica is of medium intensity, sweet with a hint of the rustic, has a good body that is husky yet clean and makes an interesting espresso.coffee-2lbs-back-FOR-AMAZON-product-mockup coffee-2lbs-front-FOR-AMAZON-product-mockup

20 Things You Didn’t Know About… Coffee (discover.com)

Try Go Africa Coffee. Go Africa Coffee is sold exclusively on Amazon nationwide. You can reach is at coffee_cust@goafricastore.com or 646-502-9778 ext 8004 or at www.GoAfricaStore.com

or at https://www.amazon.com/Go-Africa-Coffee-Whole-Bean/dp/B01FPXJAJI/ref=sr_1_2_s_it?s=grocery&ie=UTF8&qid=1470347389&sr=1-2&keywords=go+africa+coffee

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1. Forget 5-Hour Energy. The original pick-me-up may have come from the nomadic Oromo of Ethiopia, who made energy bars from ground coffee beans and animal fat sometime in the first millennium.

2.
Around A.D. 1000, Arab traders brought coffee beans home from Africa and started boiling them into a drink they called qahwa. Translation: “that which prevents sleep.”

3.
Fast-forward to the 1930s, when German physician Max Gerson began promoting daily coffee enemas to detoxify the liver, stimulate metabolism, and cure cancers.

4.
More recently, Britain’s Prince Charles has raved about coffee enemas, and Amazon.com sells DIY kits.

5.
But be warned: The National Cancer Institute says Gerson’s claims are unsupported, and the American Cancer Society cautions that illness and death can result from contaminated coffee enema equipment, depleted electrolytes, and punctured intestinal walls.

6.
Have a cup instead. In 2011, the Harvard School of Public Health reported that in a 22-year study of nearly 48,000 men, those drinking six or more cups daily were about 60 percent less likely to die from prostate cancer.

7.
A 2008 study at Sweden’s Lund University demonstrated that drinking coffee lowers the risk of breast cancer, at least for women who have a relatively common variant of the gene CYP1A2, which helps to metabolize both estrogen and coffee.

8.
But what really grabbed the public’s attention that year was cup size. The same Swedish team found a correlation between women with the genetic variation who drink three or more cups of coffee a day and smaller breasts.

9.
Volume may be the least of coffee drinkers’ worries. In 2009, psychologists from the U.K.’s Durham University observed that students who drank three cups daily were three times more likely to hear voices and have out-of-body experiences.

 0. Bach voiced his love of coffee in a cantata. With libretto by Christian Friedrich Henrici, the Kaffeekantatewas first performed in Leipzig, Germany, sometime between 1732 and 1735.

11.
 “Father, don’t be so severe! / If I can’t drink / My bowl of coffee three times daily / Then in my torment I will shrivel up / Like a piece of roast goat,”

By Rebecca Coffey|Monday, September 29, 2014

espresso
nimon / Shutterstock

1. Forget 5-Hour Energy. The original pick-me-up may have come from the nomadic Oromo of Ethiopia, who made energy bars from ground coffee beans and animal fat sometime in the first millennium.

2.
Around A.D. 1000, Arab traders brought coffee beans home from Africa and started boiling them into a drink they called qahwa. Translation: “that which prevents sleep.”

3.
Fast-forward to the 1930s, when German physician Max Gerson began promoting daily coffee enemas to detoxify the liver, stimulate metabolism, and cure cancers.

4.
More recently, Britain’s Prince Charles has raved about coffee enemas, and Amazon.com sells DIY kits.

5.
But be warned: The National Cancer Institute says Gerson’s claims are unsupported, and the American Cancer Society cautions that illness and death can result from contaminated coffee enema equipment, depleted electrolytes, and punctured intestinal walls.

6.
Have a cup instead. In 2011, the Harvard School of Public Health reported that in a 22-year study of nearly 48,000 men, those drinking six or more cups daily were about 60 percent less likely to die from prostate cancer.

7.
A 2008 study at Sweden’s Lund University demonstrated that drinking coffee lowers the risk of breast cancer, at least for women who have a relatively common variant of the gene CYP1A2, which helps to metabolize both estrogen and coffee.

8.
But what really grabbed the public’s attention that year was cup size. The same Swedish team found a correlation between women with the genetic variation who drink three or more cups of coffee a day and smaller breasts.

9.
Volume may be the least of coffee drinkers’ worries. In 2009, psychologists from the U.K.’s Durham University observed that students who drank three cups daily were three times more likely to hear voices and have out-of-body experiences.

coffee-beans
10. Bach voiced his love of coffee in a cantata. With libretto by Christian Friedrich Henrici, the Kaffeekantatewas first performed in Leipzig, Germany, sometime between 1732 and 1735.

11.
 “Father, don’t be so severe! / If I can’t drink / My bowl of coffee three times daily / Then in my torment I will shrivel up / Like a piece of roast goat,” goes the soprano part.

12.
 Americans, too, sing coffee’s praise. According to Harvard research, Americans spend $40 billion on coffee each year.

13.
 The world consumes close to 1.6 billion cups of coffee every day.

14.
 A global phenomenon, the grande (or medium) 16-ounce coffee at Starbucks contains the caffeine equivalent of 9.5 cans of Coke.

15.
 It takes approximately 4,700 ounces, or 37 gallons, of water to make just one cup of coffee when you account for inputs needed to grow and process the beans.

16.
 Researchers from London’s Royal Botanic Gardens warn that highland forests in Ethiopia and South Sudan, where most wild coffee grows, are disappearing as mountaintops warm. By 2080, these moist ecosystems may be gone. It’s cause for concern, but not the end of coffee. The domesticated plant varieties we rely on for our joe are generally secure.

17.
 That is, until they are threatened by disease. Nearly 70 percent of the coffee we drink today comes from offshoots of wild Arabica, or Coffea arabica—the coffee species that stores most of the genetic information we need to re-engineer commercial cultivars.
 18. Coffea charrieriana, found in Cameroon, is the only known naturally decaffeinated coffee.

19.
 Coffee cherries—the fruit that bears our beloved beans—are a favorite snack of elephants, and the beans, or seeds, can be harvested, already hulled, from their dung. Smooth and caramel-tasting, elephant-dung coffee has been known to sell for $500 a pound.

20.
 Think coffee makes your breath smell bad? In 2009 researchers at Tel Aviv University found that adding coffee to a dish of saliva inhibited the growth of a bacterium that causes halitosis. So go ahead, take a coffee break.
coffee-1lb-back-FOR-AMAZON-product-mockup coffee-1lb-front-FOR-AMAZON-product-mockup

We are pleased to annouce the availablity of Go Africa Coffee execlusively on Amazon.com

Looking for Premium, high quality, Africa Coffee at an affordable price. Look no further.

We are pleased to announce the availability of Go Africa Coffee exclusively on Amazon and also via the Go Africa Store. www.GoAfricaStore.com via Amazon.

Go Africa Coffee is now available nationwide…

https://www.amazon.com/Go-Africa-Coffee-Whole-Bean/dp/B01FPMOC2E?ie=UTF8&*Version*=1&*entries*=0

 

 

Go Africa Coffee is a unique blend of ancestral roasting and processing techniques handed down by Africans for over 2,000 years in order to yield the optimal balance of flavor, taste, and aroma while also appreciating the value of wisdom of our culture and traditions to produce a product that is timeless and eternal.

We are one (English), Simunye (Zulu), Sisi ni moja (Swahili) , Anyị bụ otu (Igbo),  نحن واحد (Arabic), Ambehé mogo kéléyé (Mandingo), Nous sommes un (French).

Go Africa is 100% Gourmet Coffee from one or more of following countries (Ethiopia, Kenya, Côte d’Ivoire, Tanzania, Cameroon, and Democratic Republic of the Congo).

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Welcome to the Go Africa Coffee Product launch. Go Africa Coffee is sold exclusively on Amazon nationwide in the U.S. and throughout North America. Go Africa Coffee is a premium blend of coffee sold at an affordable and competitive price. We hope that you enjoy our product.

Thank you for your ongoing support, there is more to come.

Sincerely, the Go Africa Team.

You can reach is at coffee_cust@goafricastore.com or 646-502-9778 ext 8004 or at wwww.GoAfricaStore.com